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Two kinds of distributed photovoltaic development mode

The business model of distributed photovoltaic (pv) has always been the focus of the industry and academia. The main business model can be summarized as two kinds: regional continuous development and scattered development. Chinese circular economy association of professional committee of the renewable energy in the research of distributed photovoltaic investment and financing mechanism in China "in the report from the basic ideas, Suggestions and problems existing in the three aspects of the two kinds of business model carried on the thorough analysis. The author selected from the report out today is introduced part.

Based on market situation, the business model of distributed photovoltaic mainly can be classified into two kinds: one kind is regional continuous development, this model is based on is performed on 18 park project, developers are mostly have a certain financial strength and capability of financing of large and medium-sized power developers; Another is mainly scattered or scattered development, developers are more small and medium-sized energy conservation service company or the owner of a roof, financing capability is weak. Below will be based on the two models, and puts forward relative feasible business model for discussion.

Mode one: in the park, concentrated development mode

The basic idea:

Roof management resources in coordination with the regional management committee

Policy Banks to provide low-interest, long-term loans to large state-owned enterprises, and other investment institutions such as private enterprises can set up a "professional investment entities", in the form of equity fund or investment company to finance projects

Introduction of perfect risk assessment and the insurance mechanism, the quality of product and income risk rating

Since the power consumption of all access to the Internet, in order to ensure the late electricity nearby scheduling problem, and security benefits.

By the regional management committee set up photovoltaic property management company, power grids and project investors, the management company has the following several features:

1, the acquisition of all distributed in the area of photovoltaic power generation, coordinated more households with electricity generating system, effectively solve the yield loss caused by power supply and demand change and;

2, to the electricity unified settlement, can avoid because of the electricity arrears or changes due to the power generation side electricity charge confusion caused by the problem, reduce the uncertainty

3, take park and area of all plant maintenance service work, to ensure long-term stability of plant running

Professional investment entities as holder of power station, and photovoltaic PPA property management company to sign long-term power purchase agreement

Under the risk assessment and the insurance system of certification, plant can undertake the secondary market financing as a financial product, introduced the follow-up funds

Using the unified development pattern in the park. A single factory roof of the high cost of development, recommend "park roof, concentrated development" mode, namely concentrated area by a single developer unified development, scale, standardization, display; Promoting the construction of demonstration application, various multivariate model is given priority to with roof, both lights, outdoor tents, etc.

The ac to the unified administration of the roof. For factories and other buildings have been built, give full play to the ac guiding and coordinating role, unified management of the park in conditions of building roof, roof by organizing business owners site visits, improve enterprise orderly level, transact the new electricity capacity measures such as electricity, and roof enterprises signed the agreement on installation of photovoltaic power station in advance, covering of photovoltaic power generation systems. For new construction, form a complete set of distributed photovoltaic ahead of design and installation, grid, etc.

Photovoltaic property company unified power plant management. (or plus grid) by the park management committee, developers set up photovoltaic professional property management company, responsible for all distributed grid photovoltaic power station docking work within their respective jurisdictions, electricity settlement, operation maintenance service work, such as the owner as soon as possible after power fluctuations, can find new YongDianHu as soon as possible, the maximum extent, guarantee the efficiency of distributed photovoltaic, completely solve electricity collection difficult, often operating earnings uncertainty.

Large state-owned power developers have stronger financing ability of the company, you can directly to the policy bank loans, to get as cheap as possible, to long-term financing support. And other investment institutions such as the private enterprise may establish a "professional investment entities", in the form of equity fund or investment company, from the public and the private sector or the diversified investment subject to attract funds such as social public investment for the construction of the distributed power station. Lead domestic market gradually by the entity of project level distributed business model into a focused on the development, financing and operation integration, realize the integration of industry and capital business model. Recognised PPA and financing lease mode to introduce more long-term capital.

The problem

In order to realize the flexible power management mode, the support of the power grid is the precondition of the real-time power dispatching. In this model, we suggest that the distributed photovoltaic power and given to the nearest unified Internet access, using the grid channel.

Photovoltaic (pv) property management company responsible for the coordination and adjustment of distributed photovoltaic power generation for the electricity and electricity price in economic settlement according to the agreement.

For example: suppose the local sales price for 1 yuan/kWh, desulfurization electricity price 0.45 yuan/kWh, the area of distributed photovoltaic power generation will power to 0.8 yuan/kWh to property management companies, property management company to 0.9 yuan/kWh to local users (under local sales price of 0.1 yuan/kWh, equivalent to the roof of the local owner rent). Property management company in 0.1 yuan/kWh of profit, and benefit from part as compensation for power grid using the grid channel, assuming that is 0.02 yuan/kWh. As a result,

1, the repatriation of photovoltaic (pv) project is: Internet charge * (0.8 + 0.42) yuan/kWh

2, the property management company earnings: buy area power * (0.1 0.02) yuan/kWh

3, power grid benefits: 0.02 yuan/kWh * net charge

It seems that the loss of the grid is originally may be purchased by 0.45 yuan/kWh, sold for $1 per kWh of electricity, the harvest a net charge only 0.02 yuan/kWh, economic benefits of differences. Power grid is able to provide supporting services, therefore, need to rely on the government coordination, and appropriate compensation for its economic benefits.

Model 2: energy conservation service company mainly, scattered scattered development mode

The basic idea:

Through regional management committee to coordinate management of roof to reach an agreement with the landlord

Guided by the government, by policy bank credit, encourage enterprises and other Banks to join "series borrow all - financing platform", to provide financing for small and medium-sized enterprises and individuals

Consider giving you a classification of local government subsidies, or give preferential policies in tax

Introduction of perfect risk assessment and the insurance mechanism, the quality of product and income risk rating

Power grid work independent or joint owner, as well as special coordination agency, responsible for distributed photovoltaic power given and online scheduling project, acquisition area since the power consumption of all distributed photovoltaic power generation, effectively solve the yield loss caused by power demand change; Grid uniform settlement of electricity, make subsidies and electricity to power generation side, can reduce the uncertainty

By contract and renewal of insurance mechanism in the roof, clear the use fixed number of year of the roof within the contract, if there is a change will compensate for the losses by the owner

Energy saving service companies, or other professional maintenance company responsible for the power plant maintenance work

Small and medium-sized power developers and energy service companies are hard to participate in the development of the first concentrated model due to the smaller, less with the local government and power grid pattern of cooperation or joint venture. But to encourage the application of distributed photovoltaic roof and the effective utilization of resources, we still need to small and medium-sized power developers, energy conservation service company and owner application conditions and create a sound market mechanism.

To solve the problem of financing difficulties, can draw lessons from foshan sanshui case application of "system borrow all still - financing platform" model, to encourage local governments and enterprises in the pilot areas, established on the basis of enterprise credit, as the core of the financing platform in marketing operation way. Policy Banks to loan qualifications and commitment shall ability of financing platform to provide credit, or encourage large photovoltaic enterprises to participate in and assume the financing function, financing platform is effective way of capital operation, such as entrusted loans provide financing support to conform to the conditions of the object.

Aiming at the condition of the high cost of small and medium-sized enterprises to invest, to form a complete set of installation fees use subsidies subsidies (including equipment and engineering), can be used in accordance with the size ladder subsidy way, encourages the use of roof resources efficiency. In addition, encouraging local distributed photovoltaic project subsidy policy, increase the intensity of support, and on the tax incentives to adjust.

The unification of the power given and coordination on the Internet. Generally installed on a smaller scale, decentralized, distributed photovoltaic project in parts of the load are mainly concentrated in the night, the day since the power consumption is small, lead to project earnings are relatively poor. Proposed power grid to "higher desulfurization benchmarking prices, lower than the sales price" the price of the acquisition of distributed photovoltaic battery online.

Above all, Germany by diminishing size difference, regular photovoltaic feed-in tariff policy,

On the one hand, according to the market demand level security distributed photovoltaic investors reasonable return on investment; On a regular basis, on the other hand, decreasing the electricity price subsidies for photovoltaic power generation cost is reduced, and inspire new project put into production as soon as possible.

The problem

System in order to ensure "borrow all also investment and financing platform of the safe and stable operation, should first clear project for the record, such as examination and approval, loan conditions detailed rules for the implementation.

In addition, the same as a model, in order to make pv projects to obtain more profits, the grid needs to be some benefits, only the distributed photovoltaic charge over net. The problem is still need the government to negotiate with power grid.

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